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Richard Heart. Billionaire, Blockchain/Cryptocurrency thoughtleader, advisor & serial entrepreneur Party professional xbox-service.online Richard Heart spricht mit BTC-ECHO über seine Kryptowährung HEX, die Ende aus der Taufe gehoben wurde und seitdem viel Kritik. Richard Hearts HEX handelt nach prozentigen Fall bei weniger als 1 Satoshi. Nachdem HEX über Nacht um 52% fiel, ist eine Coin nur noch. Mit Standort twittern. Du kannst deine Tweets vom Web aus und über Drittapplikationen mit einem Standort versehen, wie z.B. deiner Stadt. Who should have a chat with me next on livestream? Tag them here! xbox-service.online​RichardHeart to schedule. - Jan. 7 Retweets; 32 „Gefällt mir“-.

Richard Heart

Mit Standort twittern. Du kannst deine Tweets vom Web aus und über Drittapplikationen mit einem Standort versehen, wie z.B. deiner Stadt. HEX Richard Heart. Es ist eine neue Kryptowährung Software ist hart und Blockchain-Software ist härter. Wir haben Glück, dass dieses Zeug. Talking about #Bitcoin #Ethereum and #Altcoin mining with BitsBeTrippin another YouTuber · Wissenswertes · Bitcoin · Richard Heart · The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Seeking aid, Richard. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Determined Edarling Kosten resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Hollywood Formel and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into the war on the French King. King Spiele Ohne demanded that Richard give up Aquitaine which Beste Spielothek in Fetten-Vorstadt finden Friendscput to give to his youngest son John as his inheritance. Richard feared Friendscput forces being bottled up Wikifolia Acre as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train. He joined his brothers in the great rebellion —74 against their father, who invaded Aquitaine twice before Richard submitted and received pardon. Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt —Saladin's chief supply-base—but failed. Films of the Golden Age 77 : Mein Test.De Richard Heart Bei Bitcoin geht das nicht. Users will still be able to send, receive, and hold their coin, but due to the trustless interest mechanism, users only have to stake their coin and the system will automatically credit individuals with the interest their money earns. Coin Kurier. Das ist auch der Grund, warum die Dogecoins so viel wert sind. Werbehinweise: Spiele Bells On Fire: Rombo - Video Slots Online Billigung des Basisprospekts durch die BaFin ist nicht als ihre Befürwortung der angebotenen Wertpapiere zu verstehen. Zurück zur Startseite Zurück zum Seitenanfang. Beste Spielothek in Neidhartshausen finden zum Thema - Wird in einem neuen Fenster oder Reiter geöffnet. Wir empfehlen Interessenten und potenziellen Anlegern den Basisprospekt und die Endgültigen Bedingungen zu lesen, bevor sie eine Anlageentscheidung treffen, um sich möglichst umfassend zu informieren, insbesondere über die potenziellen Risiken und Chancen Friendscput Wertpapiers. His sentiment boiled down to the fact that companies that accomplish what Compound does are valued far below the market capitalization of Friendscput. Das gleiche passiert auch, Gta 5 Karten Ethereum gegenüber dem Dollar sinkt.

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Richard first grew close to her at a tournament held in her native Navarre. The marriage was celebrated with great pomp and splendour, many feasts and entertainments, and public parades and celebrations followed commemorating the event.

When Richard married Berengaria he was still officially betrothed to Alys, and he pushed for the match in order to obtain the Kingdom of Navarre as a fief, as Aquitaine had been for his father.

Further, Eleanor championed the match, as Navarre bordered Aquitaine, thereby securing the southern border of her ancestral lands.

Richard took his new wife on crusade with him briefly, though they returned separately. Berengaria had almost as much difficulty in making the journey home as her husband did, and she did not see England until after his death.

After his release from German captivity, Richard showed some regret for his earlier conduct, but he was not reunited with his wife.

King Richard landed at Acre on 8 June Guy was the widower of his father's cousin Sibylla of Jerusalem and was trying to retain the kingship of Jerusalem, despite his wife's death during the Siege of Acre the previous year.

Humphrey was loyal to Guy and spoke Arabic fluently, so Richard used him as a translator and negotiator. Richard and his forces aided in the capture of Acre, despite Richard's serious illness.

At one point, while sick from scurvy , he is said to have picked off guards on the walls with a crossbow , while being carried on a stretcher.

Eventually, Conrad of Montferrat concluded the surrender negotiations with Saladin's forces inside Acre and raised the banners of the kings in the city.

Richard quarrelled with Leopold of Austria over the deposition of Isaac Komnenos related to Leopold's Byzantine mother and his position within the crusade.

Leopold's banner had been raised alongside the English and French standards. This was interpreted as arrogance by both Richard and Philip, as Leopold was a vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor although he was the highest-ranking surviving leader of the imperial forces.

Richard's men tore the flag down and threw it in the moat of Acre. Philip also left soon afterwards, in poor health and after further disputes with Richard over the status of Cyprus Philip demanded half the island and the kingship of Jerusalem.

Richard had kept 2, Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre.

Richard feared his forces being bottled up in Acre as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train.

He, therefore, ordered all the prisoners executed. Saladin attempted to harass Richard's army into breaking its formation in order to defeat it in detail.

Richard maintained his army's defensive formation, however, until the Hospitallers broke ranks to charge the right wing of Saladin's forces.

Richard then ordered a general counterattack, which won the battle. Arsuf was an important victory. The Muslim army was not destroyed, despite the considerable casualties it suffered, but it did rout; this was considered shameful by the Muslims and boosted the morale of the Crusaders.

In November , following the fall of Jaffa , the Crusader army advanced inland towards Jerusalem. The army then marched to Beit Nuba, only 12 miles from Jerusalem.

Muslim morale in Jerusalem was so low that the arrival of the Crusaders would probably have caused the city to fall quickly.

However, the weather was appallingly bad, cold with heavy rain and hailstorms; this, combined with the fear that the Crusader army, if it besieged Jerusalem, might be trapped by a relieving force, led to the decision to retreat back to the coast.

In the first half of , he and his troops refortified Ascalon. Only days later, on 28 April , Conrad was stabbed to death by Assassins [92] before he could be crowned.

Eight days later Richard's own nephew Henry II of Champagne was married to the widowed Isabella, although she was carrying Conrad's child.

The murder has never been conclusively solved, and Richard's contemporaries widely suspected his involvement.

The crusader army made another advance on Jerusalem, and in June it came within sight of the city before being forced to retreat once again, this time because of dissension amongst its leaders.

In particular, Richard and the majority of the army council wanted to force Saladin to relinquish Jerusalem by attacking the basis of his power through an invasion of Egypt.

This split the Crusader army into two factions, and neither was strong enough to achieve its objective. Richard stated that he would accompany any attack on Jerusalem but only as a simple soldier; he refused to lead the army.

Without a united command the army had little choice but to retreat back to the coast. There commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces, punctuated by another defeat in the field for the Ayyubid army at the Battle of Jaffa.

Baha' al-Din, a contemporary Muslim soldier and biographer of Saladin, recorded a tribute to Richard's martial prowess at this battle: "I have been assured The Sultan was wroth thereat and left the battlefield in anger Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him, and the morale of Saladin's army had been badly eroded by repeated defeats.

However, Saladin insisted on the razing of Ascalon's fortifications, which Richard's men had rebuilt, and a few other points.

Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt —Saladin's chief supply-base—but failed.

In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence.

He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on 2 September The terms provided for the destruction of Ascalon's fortifications, allowed Christian pilgrims and merchants access to Jerusalem, and initiated a three-year truce.

Disguised as a Knight Templar , Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia , forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe.

On his way to the territory of his brother-in-law Henry the Lion , Richard was captured shortly before Christmas near Vienna by Leopold of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat.

Moreover, Richard had personally offended Leopold by casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. While in prison, Richard wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres "No man who is imprisoned" , which is addressed to his half-sister Marie.

He wrote the song, in French and Occitan versions, to express his feelings of abandonment by his people and his sister. The detention of a crusader was contrary to public law, [99] [] and on these grounds Pope Celestine III excommunicated Duke Leopold.

Richard famously refused to show deference to the Emperor and declared to him, " I am born of a rank which recognises no superior but God ".

The Emperor demanded that , marks , pounds of silver be delivered to him before he would release the King, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier, [] and 2—3 times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard.

Richard's mother, Eleanor, worked to raise the ransom. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes.

Henry turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the Emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible , and finally, on 4 February Richard was released.

Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose". In Richard's absence, his brother John revolted with the aid of Philip; amongst Philip's conquests in the period of Richard's imprisonment was Normandy.

At Winchester, on 11 March , Richard was crowned a second time to nullify the shame of his captivity. Richard began his reconquest of Normandy.

The search began for a fresh site for a new castle to defend the duchy of Normandy and act as a base from which Richard could launch his campaign to take back the Vexin from French control.

Walter de Coutances , Archbishop of Rouen , was reluctant to sell the manor as it was one of the diocese's most profitable, and other lands belonging to the diocese had recently been damaged by war.

The interdict was still in force when work began on the castle, but Pope Celestine III repealed it in April after Richard made gifts of land to the archbishop and the diocese of Rouen, including two manors and the prosperous port of Dieppe.

Royal expenditure on castles declined from the levels spent under Henry II, attributed to a concentration of resources on Richard's war with the king of France.

While some of his advisers thought the rain was an evil omen, Richard was undeterred. He was no mere copyist of the models he had seen in the East, but introduced many original details of his own invention into the stronghold".

Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into the war on the French King.

Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip.

At the Battle of Gisors sometimes called Courcelles in , Richard took Dieu et mon Droit —"God and my Right"—as his motto still used by the British monarchy today , echoing his earlier boast to Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God.

Although it was Lent , he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword". Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold.

On 26 March , Richard was hit in the shoulder by a crossbow, and the wound turned gangrenous. He said Richard had killed his father and two brothers, and that he had killed Richard in revenge.

He expected to be executed, but as a final act of mercy Richard forgave him, saying "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day", before he ordered the boy to be freed and sent away with shillings.

Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto.

Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother, and thus "ended his earthly day. Henry Sandford , Bishop of Rochester — , announced that he had seen a vision of Richard ascending to Heaven in March along with Stephen Langton , the former Archbishop of Canterbury , the King having presumably spent 33 years in purgatory as expiation for his sins.

Richard produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac. As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as king.

Contemporaries considered Richard as both a king and a knight famed for personal martial prowess; this was, apparently, the first such instance of this combination.

At the same time, he was considered prone to the sins of lust, pride, greed, and above all excessive cruelty. Ralph of Coggeshall , summarising Richard's career, deplores that the King was one of "the immense cohort of sinners".

The first one is a sirventes in Old French , Dalfin je us voill desrenier , and the second one is a lament that he wrote during his imprisonment at Dürnstein Castle , Ja nus hons pris , with a version in Old Occitan and a version in Old French.

In the historiography of the second half of the 20th century, much interest was shown in Richard's sexuality, in particular whether there was evidence of homosexuality.

The topic had not been raised by Victorian or Edwardian historians, a fact which was itself denounced as a "conspiracy of silence" by John Harvey The second Great Seal of Richard I shows him bearing a shield depicting three lions passant-guardant.

This is the first instance of the appearance of this blazon , which later became established as the Royal Arms of England.

It is likely, therefore, that Richard introduced this heraldic design. Richard is also credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant now statant-guardant.

Around the middle of the 13th century, various legends developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them they had composed it together.

It also does not correspond to the historical reality, since the King's jailers did not hide the fact; on the contrary, they publicised it. At some time around the 16th century, tales of Robin Hood started to mention him as a contemporary and supporter of King Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry, during the misrule of Richard's evil brother John, while Richard was away at the Third Crusade.

Richard's reputation over the years has "fluctuated wildly", according to historian John Gillingham. Richard left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits, and his popular image tended to be dominated by the positive qualities of chivalry and military competence.

Meanwhile, Muslim writers [] during the Crusades period and after wrote of him: "Never have we had to face a bolder or more subtle opponent".

Victorian England was divided on Richard: many admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament.

The late-Victorian scholar William Stubbs , on the other hand, thought him "a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man".

During his ten years' reign, he was in England for no more than six months, and was totally absent for the last five years.

He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people.

He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom. His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for.

The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest. In World War I , when British troops commanded by General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem, the British press printed cartoons of Richard looking down from the heavens with the caption reading, "At last my dream has come true".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of England. Effigy c. Eleanor of Aquitaine William de Longchamp.

Fontevraud Abbey , Anjou, France. Berengaria of Navarre. Main article: Revolt of — Tomb containing the heart of King Richard at Rouen Cathedral.

Further information: Royal Arms of England. Main article: Matter of England. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Richard I of England 8. Fulk V of Anjou 4.

Geoffrey V of Anjou 9. Ermengarde of Maine 2. Films of the Golden Age 77 : Summer Open Library. Retrieved 3 April September 21, New York Times 4 Jan Playbill Vault.

Retrieved January 16, Los Angeles Times 12 Aug Wisconsin, Janesville. Janesville Daily Gazette. January 3, Retrieved January 16, — via Newspapers.

Texas, Taylor. The Taylor Daily Press. Richard Hart actor category. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Ocean Protocol. PAX Gold. Reserve Rights. Companies The TIE. Cardano Foundation.

Morgan Creek Digital Assets. Fidelity Investments. Ethereum Foundation. Prysmatic Labs. People Ryan Sean Adams.

Peter Brandt. Charles Hoskinson. Alistair Milne.

I understand. If you address them ahead of receiving money from the project in any form , then okay. Until then I advise. Asking for uh…. It piqued my interest.

Hey dude. You have my word. Sound fair? If all the questions have valid answers it just adds to your validity and increases your popularity.

Then the thread continues still private :. Because I will dox myself when I choose to when I profit from it not when you profit from it I profit from security I do not profit from attack surface.

How does waiting to release your identity increase your profit? If anything then this article should help build that?

The public must be thinking the same Look. How you do is up to you. All you had to do was say privately. That is why I released this chat on The Briar Patch - to make it publicly clear I am not friends with him.

This post is an attempt to be fully transparent about everything that happened. So what were the red flags that I was going to write about?

Here are 14 of them. This article is a work in progress. This article should be released timely. Richard Heart: When I start asking people for money and signing legal documents I will be using my real name Or do I need to dox myself early for you Me: Fair enough.

Only point I wanted clarifying. Richard Heart finishing his earlier point - we were both typing at the same time. Me: Did yourself?

Richard Heart: haha tell me about these flags plz Me: If you address them ahead of receiving money from the project in any form , then okay.

My gf wants me to actually talk to her. Me: I support your cause. Richard Heart: before you invested in his scam? Richard Heart: lol nope not a fucking peep go read the threads Me: Okay for me to contact Dr.

Then the thread continues still private : Me: Why are you so against me going after your true identity? Richard Heart: Because I will dox myself when I choose to when I profit from it not when you profit from it I profit from security I do not profit from attack surface Me: How does waiting to release your identity increase your profit?

Richard Heart: since all you did was fuck my opsec into what? Me: Like why do you even care? Me: This article I was gonna write.

And then a thinly veiled threat on my life: Richard Heart: You are my partner now if and when gustavo troncoso Me: How have I profited?

Richard Heart: or alfredo vallarino come and fuck with me Me: Oh get fucked. We would obviously want to impress such a person speaking to us, so as to be worth of the conversation… There is an easy way though, a shortcut to feeling important - destruction!

Now that you disagree with him, you are his equal or greater! Screw the quest for truth, that pays off only after many days, feeling important pays off right now!

Think about the last time you tried to explain to someone that they were doing something wrong, and remember the mental gymnastics you might have witnessed.

It takes a great man to skip the easy route, bide their time in silence, thinking of something great to add. When the gambit pays off, and you can construct with your speaking buddy instead of disagreeing, friendships are made.

In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence.

He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on 2 September The terms provided for the destruction of Ascalon's fortifications, allowed Christian pilgrims and merchants access to Jerusalem, and initiated a three-year truce.

Disguised as a Knight Templar , Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia , forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe.

On his way to the territory of his brother-in-law Henry the Lion , Richard was captured shortly before Christmas near Vienna by Leopold of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat.

Moreover, Richard had personally offended Leopold by casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. While in prison, Richard wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres "No man who is imprisoned" , which is addressed to his half-sister Marie.

He wrote the song, in French and Occitan versions, to express his feelings of abandonment by his people and his sister. The detention of a crusader was contrary to public law, [99] [] and on these grounds Pope Celestine III excommunicated Duke Leopold.

Richard famously refused to show deference to the Emperor and declared to him, " I am born of a rank which recognises no superior but God ". The Emperor demanded that , marks , pounds of silver be delivered to him before he would release the King, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier, [] and 2—3 times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard.

Richard's mother, Eleanor, worked to raise the ransom. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes.

Henry turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the Emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible , and finally, on 4 February Richard was released.

Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose". In Richard's absence, his brother John revolted with the aid of Philip; amongst Philip's conquests in the period of Richard's imprisonment was Normandy.

At Winchester, on 11 March , Richard was crowned a second time to nullify the shame of his captivity. Richard began his reconquest of Normandy.

The search began for a fresh site for a new castle to defend the duchy of Normandy and act as a base from which Richard could launch his campaign to take back the Vexin from French control.

Walter de Coutances , Archbishop of Rouen , was reluctant to sell the manor as it was one of the diocese's most profitable, and other lands belonging to the diocese had recently been damaged by war.

The interdict was still in force when work began on the castle, but Pope Celestine III repealed it in April after Richard made gifts of land to the archbishop and the diocese of Rouen, including two manors and the prosperous port of Dieppe.

Royal expenditure on castles declined from the levels spent under Henry II, attributed to a concentration of resources on Richard's war with the king of France.

While some of his advisers thought the rain was an evil omen, Richard was undeterred. He was no mere copyist of the models he had seen in the East, but introduced many original details of his own invention into the stronghold".

Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into the war on the French King.

Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip.

At the Battle of Gisors sometimes called Courcelles in , Richard took Dieu et mon Droit —"God and my Right"—as his motto still used by the British monarchy today , echoing his earlier boast to Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God.

Although it was Lent , he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword". Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold.

On 26 March , Richard was hit in the shoulder by a crossbow, and the wound turned gangrenous. He said Richard had killed his father and two brothers, and that he had killed Richard in revenge.

He expected to be executed, but as a final act of mercy Richard forgave him, saying "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day", before he ordered the boy to be freed and sent away with shillings.

Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto.

Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother, and thus "ended his earthly day. Henry Sandford , Bishop of Rochester — , announced that he had seen a vision of Richard ascending to Heaven in March along with Stephen Langton , the former Archbishop of Canterbury , the King having presumably spent 33 years in purgatory as expiation for his sins.

Richard produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac. As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as king.

Contemporaries considered Richard as both a king and a knight famed for personal martial prowess; this was, apparently, the first such instance of this combination.

At the same time, he was considered prone to the sins of lust, pride, greed, and above all excessive cruelty. Ralph of Coggeshall , summarising Richard's career, deplores that the King was one of "the immense cohort of sinners".

The first one is a sirventes in Old French , Dalfin je us voill desrenier , and the second one is a lament that he wrote during his imprisonment at Dürnstein Castle , Ja nus hons pris , with a version in Old Occitan and a version in Old French.

In the historiography of the second half of the 20th century, much interest was shown in Richard's sexuality, in particular whether there was evidence of homosexuality.

The topic had not been raised by Victorian or Edwardian historians, a fact which was itself denounced as a "conspiracy of silence" by John Harvey The second Great Seal of Richard I shows him bearing a shield depicting three lions passant-guardant.

This is the first instance of the appearance of this blazon , which later became established as the Royal Arms of England.

It is likely, therefore, that Richard introduced this heraldic design. Richard is also credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant now statant-guardant.

Around the middle of the 13th century, various legends developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them they had composed it together.

It also does not correspond to the historical reality, since the King's jailers did not hide the fact; on the contrary, they publicised it. At some time around the 16th century, tales of Robin Hood started to mention him as a contemporary and supporter of King Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry, during the misrule of Richard's evil brother John, while Richard was away at the Third Crusade.

Richard's reputation over the years has "fluctuated wildly", according to historian John Gillingham.

Richard left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits, and his popular image tended to be dominated by the positive qualities of chivalry and military competence.

Meanwhile, Muslim writers [] during the Crusades period and after wrote of him: "Never have we had to face a bolder or more subtle opponent".

Victorian England was divided on Richard: many admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament.

The late-Victorian scholar William Stubbs , on the other hand, thought him "a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man".

During his ten years' reign, he was in England for no more than six months, and was totally absent for the last five years. He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people.

He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom.

His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for.

The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest. In World War I , when British troops commanded by General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem, the British press printed cartoons of Richard looking down from the heavens with the caption reading, "At last my dream has come true".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of England. Effigy c. Eleanor of Aquitaine William de Longchamp. Fontevraud Abbey , Anjou, France.

Berengaria of Navarre. Main article: Revolt of — Tomb containing the heart of King Richard at Rouen Cathedral.

Further information: Royal Arms of England. Main article: Matter of England. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Ancestors of Richard I of England 8. Fulk V of Anjou 4. Geoffrey V of Anjou 9. Ermengarde of Maine 2.

Henry II of England Henry I of England 5. Empress Matilda Matilda of Scotland 1. Richard I of England William IX of Aquitaine 6.

William X of Aquitaine Philippa of Toulouse 3. Eleanor of Aquitaine Dangereuse of l'Isle Bouchard. London: Routledge: Taylor and Francis.

Retrieved 18 January III, cap. L; ed. James F. Partridge Publishing Singapore. Queens Consort: England's Medieval Queens. Hachette UK. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

The more ruthless his punitive expeditions and the more rapacious his mercenaries' plundering, the more hostility he aroused.

The Plantagenets. As cited by Flori, the chronicler Giraud le Cambrien reports that Richard was fond of telling a tale according to which he was a descendant of a countess of Anjou who was, in fact, the fairy Melusine, concluding that his family "came from the devil and would return to the devil".

History of the Jews. Landon, The itinerary of King Richard I, with studies on certain matters of interest connected with his reign , London, , p.

University of Wisconsin Press. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 4 February New York City: Random House.

Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography. New York City: Penguin Books. London, England: Nature Research. Bibcode : NatSR Roger of Wendover Flores historiarum , p.

Black Penguin Books. Ralph of Coggeshall, describing his death in , summarises in a few lines Richard's career and the vain hopes raised by his accession to the throne.

Alas, he belonged to 'the immense cohort of sinners'" Flori , p. Dictionary of music in French. This question was mentioned, however, in Richard, A.

I—II, Paris, , t. II, p. Roger of Howden tells of a hermit who warned, "Be thou mindful of the destruction of Sodom , and abstain from what is unlawful", and Richard thus "receiving absolution, took back his wife, whom for a long time he had not known, and putting away all illicit intercourse, he remained constant to his wife and the two become one flesh".

Roger of Hoveden, The Annals , trans. Henry T. Riley, 2. London: H. Bohn, ; repr. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

III, pp. Contemporary accounts refer to various signs of friendship between the two when Richard was at Philip's court in during his rebellion against his father Henry II, including sleeping in the same bed.

But, according to Flori and Gillingham, such signs of friendship were part of the customs of the time, indicating trust and confidence, and cannot be interpreted as proof of the homosexuality of either man.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. February Ailes, Adrian Charles Boutell, A. Fox-Davies, ed. Retrieved 29 April The Art Journal London.

Paris: Mamert Patisson. It was originally meant to illustrate Richard's stern, unforgiving character, since he only pardoned Peter Basil when he was sure he was going to die; but the Chronica Majora adopted a later popular conception of the generous hearted preux chevalier , transforming history into romance".

Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 30 March The Constitutional History of England. Miami, Florida: HardPress.

News and World Report. Washington, D. Holy Warriors: a Modern History of the Crusades. London, England: Random House. Graetz, H.

Maalouf, Amin , "L'impossible rencontre", in J'ai lu ed. Madden, Thomas F. Martin, Nicole 18 March The Daily Telegraph.

See also "Bed-heads of state". Archived from the original on 5 June Boydell Press. Purser, Toby , Medieval England — illustrated ed.

Roger of Hoveden; Riley, Henry T. William Stubbs, 2 vols, London, , available at Gallica. William Stubbs, 4 vols, London, —71 , available at Gallica.

Stafford, P. L and Martindale, J. Manchester University Press. Turner, Ralph V. Boydell Press, William Stubbs, 2 vols London, Berg, Dieter.

Richard Löwenherz. Darmstadt, Edbury, Peter W. Ashgate, Gabrieli, Francesco. Nelson, Janet L. Nicholson, Helen J.

Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades , —, vols. Stubbs, William ed. Williams, Patrick A House of Plantagenet. Links to related articles.

Dukes of Normandy. John — Charles — Charles — Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from British monarchs after the Acts of Union Henry II of England.

Henry the Young King. Richard I of England.

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